What is Blockchain Technology?

What is Blockchain Technology?

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Blockchain technology is a specific type of distributed ledger technology (DLT). The concept of distributed ledgers can be traced back to the 1990s and the invention of the hash tree (also known as a Merkle tree) by Ralph Merkle. A hash tree allows efficient and secure verification of the contents of a large data structure over a computer network. Blockchain and DLT are often used interchangeably, but there are subtle differences between the two. In short, all blockchains are DLTs — but not all DLTs are blockchains.

A simple definition of a blockchain is a decentralized system for storing and recording transactions on multiple computers — where the transactions are grouped together in blocks and added to a chain in a linear, chronological order (hence the term “blockchain”).

The key feature of blockchain technology is that it uses a decentralized consensus mechanism (the dominant mechanisms being ‘Proof of Work’ and ‘Proof of Stake’) — to ensure the integrity and security of the underlying ledger. This mechanism is what allows for the creation of a tamperproof, transparent, and secure ledger; since it is trustless and distributed in nature — and therefore has no single point of failure.

The pseudonymous Satoshi Nakamoto — the person (or group of people) who created Bitcoin — first introduced the concept of a blockchain in their white paper “Bitcoin: A Peer-to-Peer Electronic Cash System”; which described how a decentralized system could be used to record and validate digital transactions without the need for a central authority. It is this capacity to validate transactions over an open, permissionless network without the need for a trusted third party that makes Bitcoin (and other cryptocurrencies that have come out since Bitcoin’s invention) so powerful.

Blockchain technology does not necessarily have to be decentralized and permissionless — but these are the key characteristics that define the most well-known blockchain platforms, such as Bitcoin and Ethereum.

A decentralized blockchain is one where no single entity controls the network. Instead, it is maintained by a network of computers, or “nodes”; which work in tandem to validate transactions and add them to the blockchain. This decentralization is what allows for transparency and security because no single entity can tamper with the ledger. Decentralized — or permissionless — blockchains are public and open to anyone who wants to join the network and participate in the consensus process.

However, it’s also possible to have a blockchain that is centralized and permissioned. This means that a single entity controls the network and that only certain users can join the network and validate transactions. These types of blockchains are often used in private or consortium networks — where the network is operated by a group of organizations and the access is restricted to them by design.

Centralized and permissioned blockchains may lack some of the core benefits of transparency, openness, and security that permissionless blockchains offer; but they can provide other practical advantages, such as faster transactions, higher scalability, greater privacy and more control over the network.

The term “blockchain technology” is now used to describe a vast array of technological applications that have sprung up in Bitcoin’s wake — way beyond the Bitcoin blockchain’s initial use case as an infrastructure layer on which to run a perpetual ledger for an open, P2P electronic cash system.

Some of the most notable existing applications of blockchain technology are

  • Cryptocurrencies: Blockchain technology is most commonly associated with digital currencies, such as Bitcoin, Ethereum, and Litecoin;
  • Smart contracts: Blockchain technology can be used to create self-executing contracts with the terms of the agreement written directly into the code. Smart contracts can be used to automate the payment process and to ensure that payments are made only when certain conditions are met. For example, a smart contract could be used to automatically release payment to a seller only after the buyer has received and accepted the goods;
  • Payment gateways and processing: Blockchain technology can be used to create decentralized payment gateways and processing platforms that allow merchants to accept payments in multiple cryptocurrencies. These gateways can also be used to facilitate cross-border payments and micropayments — which are typically difficult and expensive to process using traditional methods;
  • Decentralized finance (DeFi): Decentralized finance is a movement that is using blockchain technology to create new financial products and services (such as lending and borrowing) without the need for traditional financial intermediaries. DeFi platforms can be used to facilitate payments and payment processing — and offer new ways for individuals and businesses to manage their money and make transactions;
  • Supply chain management: Blockchain technology can provide an efficient way to track the movement of goods and ensure that the information is accurate, tamper-proof, and transparent;
  • Digital identity: Blockchain technology can help to create a secure, decentralized way of verifying identities, which can be used to protect against identity theft and fraud;
  • Digital voting: Blockchain technology can be used to create a secure, transparent, and auditable voting system;
  • Environmental, social, and corporate governance (ESG): Blockchain technology can be used for tracking and reporting on ESG performance for multinational companies;
  • Digital rights and royalties management: Blockchain technology can be used to create a system for tracking and managing digital rights and royalties for creative works such as music, videos, and literature;
  • Banking and financial services: Blockchain technology has the potential to revolutionize the banking and financial services industry — by reducing the need for intermediaries, increasing transparency, and reducing fraud;
  • Internet of Things (IoT): Blockchain technology can be used to create a secure, decentralized system for managing and exchanging data between IoT devices;
  • Real estate: Blockchain technology can be used to create a tamper-proof, transparent system for recording and tracking property ownership and transactions;
  • Healthcare: Blockchain technology can be used to create a secure, tamper-proof system for storing and sharing patient medical records;
  • Gaming: Blockchain technology is being used in the gaming industry to create in-game assets that are unique and can’t be replicated;
  • Digital advertising: Blockchain technology is being used to track and verify digital ad impressions and to eliminate fraud;
  • Charity and donation: Blockchain technology can be used to track and verify charitable donations and to ensure that the funds are reaching the intended recipients;
  • Energy: Blockchain technology can be used to create a decentralized, peer-to-peer energy trading system.

This list is by no means exhaustive and there are many other existing and potential applications for blockchain technology.


Perhaps the biggest emerging category of blockchain technology that is worthy of special note is non-fungible tokens (NFTs). NFTs are digital assets that are unique and cannot be replicated — and are typically used to represent ownership of a digital item such as artwork, videos, music, and other digital assets. They are built on top of a blockchain — specifically on a platform such as Ethereum, which is a decentralized, open-source blockchain platform that allows for the creation of smart contracts and the issuance of tokens.

An NFT is a digital token that represents ownership of a unique digital asset. It contains metadata that describes the asset, such as a link to an image or video file; and it is stored on the blockchain, which allows for the secure, transparent, and tamper-proof tracking and exchange of ownership. NFTs are unique because they are not interchangeable or equivalent to other NFTs — unlike traditional cryptocurrencies, which are fungible and interchangeable.

But NFTs have much broader applications and use cases than the certification of ownership of a digital asset. NFTs provide an architecture for tokenization. Tokenization is converting assets such as real estate, art, and other valuable, real-world items into digital tokens, which can be traded on a blockchain. Tokenization allows for fractional ownership and enables the creation of new investment opportunities and liquidity in otherwise illiquid assets. Tokenized assets such as real estate can be traded and settled using blockchain-based payments.


  • Blockchain technology is a type of distributed ledger technology (DLT), which allows for the recording and validation of digital transactions on a decentralized, tamper-proof, and secure network architecture;
  • The concept of distributed ledgers dates back to the 1990s and the invention of the hash tree, but the first public implementation of a distributed ledger was initiated by the pseudonymous Satoshi Nakamoto; who invented the concept of a blockchain with the publishing of their white paper “Bitcoin: A Peer-to-Peer Electronic Cash System”;
  • Blockchain technology can be either decentralized or centralized, and permissionless or permissioned. Decentralized and permissionless blockchains (such as Bitcoin and Ethereum) offer openness, transparency, and security; whilst centralized and permissioned blockchains, used in private or consortium networks, may offer faster transactions, higher scalability, greater privacy, and more control over the network;
  • The term “blockchain technology” is now also used to refer to the vast array of applications and use cases that harness the power of blockchain technology, including cryptocurrencies; payment processing, banking, and financial services; decentralized finance (DeFi); smart contracts; blockchain-enabled supply chain management; digital identity; digital voting; digital rights and royalties management; and the tokenization (and fractionalization) of real-world assets such as real estate;
  • NFTs are a new evolutionary branch of blockchain technology, which not only enables the ownership and exchange of digital assets but also the fractionalization of real-world assets such as real estate.

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